Review of NASA's Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health
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Review of NASA's Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health

As part of its ongoing commitment to the nation's space program, NASA's medical leadership asked the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to review specific aspects of the scientific basis, policies, and procedures associated with the Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH). NASA created the LSAH in 1992 to address a variety of issues, including both the health of astronauts during space flight and the longer-term health issues that mig...

Working Families and Growing Kids: Caring for Children and Adolescents
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Working Families and Growing Kids

  An informative mix of data and discussion, this book presents conclusions and recommendations for policies that can respond to the new conditions shaping America’s working families. Among the family and work trends reviewed: • Growing population of mothers with young children in the workforce. • Increasing reliance of nonparental child care. • Growing challenges of families on welfare. • Increased understanding of ch...

Asbestos: Selected Cancers
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Asbestos: Selected Cancers

In conjunction with drafting comprehensive legislation concerning compensation for health effects related to asbestos exposure (the Fairness in Asbestos Injury Act), the Senate Committee on the Judiciary directed the Institute of Medicine to assemble the Committee on Asbestos: Selected Health Effects. This committee was charged with addressing whether asbestos exposure is causally related to adverse health consequences in addition to...

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Genome-Based Diagnostics: Demonstrating Clinical Utility in Oncology: Workshop Summary

Genome-Based Diagnostics: Demonstrating Clinical Utility in Oncology is the summary of a workshop convened in May 2012 by the Roundtable on Translating Genomic-Based Research for Health and the Center for Medical Technology Policy of the Institute of Medicine to foster the identified need for further sustained dialogue between stakeholders regarding the clinical utility of molecular diagnostics. The workshop brought together a wide r...

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Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States:

Every day in the United States, children and adolescents are victims of commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking. These are not only illegal activities, but also forms of violence and abuse that result in immediate and long-term physical, mental, and emotional harm to victims and survivors. In 2013, the Institute of Medicine/National Research Council released the report Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Tra...

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Financing Population Health Improvement: Workshop Summary

Despite spending far more on medical care than any other nation and despite having seen a century of unparalleled improvement in population health and longevity, the United States has fallen behind many of its global counterparts and competitors in such health outcomes as overall life expectancy and rates of preventable diseases and injuries. A fundamental but often overlooked driver of the imbalance between spending and outcomes is ...

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Growing Up Tobacco Free: Preventing Nicotine Addiction in Children and Youths

Tobacco use kills more people than any other addiction and we know that addiction starts in childhood and youth. We all agree that youths should not smoke, but how can this be accomplished? What prevention messages will they find compelling? What effect does tobacco advertising--more than $10 million worth every day--have on youths? Can we responsibly and effectively restrict their access to tobacco products? These questions and more...

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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up?

The remarkable increase in the prevalence of obesity among children and youth in the United States over a relatively short timespan represents one of the defining public health challenges of the 21st century. The country is beginning to recognize childhood obesity as a major public health epidemic that will incur substantial costs to the nation. However, the current level of investment by the public and private sectors still does not...

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Promising and Best Practices in Total Worker Health: Workshop Summary

Combined with the more traditional employer occupational safety and health protection activities are newer employment-based programs to promote better health through helping workers quit smoking, lose weight, reduce stress, or exercise more regularly. In support of these efforts, some employers have made changes in their policies and facilities to support physical activity and healthier eating, and some employers connect with communi...

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HIV and Disability: Updating the Social Security Listings

In this report, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) makes several recommendations for improving SSA's capacity for determining disability benefits more accurately and quickly using the HIV Infection Listings. The Social Security Administration (SSA) uses a screening tool called the Listing of Impairments to identify claimants who are so severely impaired that they cannot work at all and thus qualify for disability benefits. By the end of...