End Points for Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste in Russia and the United States
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End Points for Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste in Russia and the United States

End Points for spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste in Russian and the United States provides an analysis of the management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in Russia and the United States, describing inventories, comparing approaches, and assessing the end-point options for storage and disposal of materials and wastes. The authoring committee finds that despite differences in philosophy about nuc...

Educating One and All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform
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Educating One and All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform

In the movement toward standards-based education, an important question stands out: How will this reform affect the 10% of school-aged children who have disabilities and thus qualify for special education? In Educating One and All, an expert committee addresses how to reconcile common learning for all students with individualized education for "one"--the unique student. The book makes recommendations to states and communities that ha...

Severe Space Weather Eventsâ¬"Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report: Extended Summary
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Severe Space Weather Eventsâ¬"Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report: Extended Summary

The adverse effects of extreme space weather on modern technology--power grid outages, high-frequency communication blackouts, spacecraft anomalies--are well known and well documented, and the physical processes underlying space weather are also generally well understood. Less well documented and understood, however, are the potential economic and societal impacts of the disruption of critical technological systems by severe space we...

Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals
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Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals

  In this first in a proposed series of workshops on regulatory issues in animal care and use, the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR) has addressed the existing and proposed requirements for reporting pain and distress in laboratory animals. The Animal Welfare Act, administered by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), mandates that pain and distress in ...

Measuring Access to Learning Opportunities
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Measuring Access to Learning Opportunities

Since 1968 the Elementary and Secondary School Civil Rights Compliance Report (known as the E&S survey) has been used to gather information about possible disparities in access to learning opportunities and violations of students’ civil rights. Thirty-five years after the initiation of the E&S survey, large disparities remain both in educational outcomes and in access to learning opportunities and resources. These dispariti...

Communicating Toxicogenomics Information to Nonexperts: A Workshop Summary
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Communicating Toxicogenomics Information to Nonexperts: A Workshop Summary

Toxicogenomics, the study of how genomes respond to exposure to toxicants, may ultimately hold the promise of detecting changes in the expression of a person's genes if he or she is exposed to these toxicants. As the technology rapidly develops, it is critical that scientists and the public communicate about the promises and limitations of this new field. Communicating technical information to the public about a developing science ca...

Review of the Draft Research and Restoration Plan for Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim (Western Alaska) Salmon
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Review of the Draft Research and Restoration Plan for Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim (Western Alaska) Salmon

Declines in the abundance of salmon in the Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim (AYK) region of western Alaska in the late 1990s and early 2000s created hardships for the people and communities who depend on this resource. Based on recommendations from a 2004 National Academies report, the AYK Sustainable Salmon Initiative (SSI) developed a research and restoration plan to help understand the reasons for this decline and to help support sustainabl...

National Need and Priorities for Veterinarians in Biomedical Research
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National Need and Priorities for Veterinarians in Biomedical Research

The report identified various factors which contributed to creating an unfulfilled need for veterinarians in the biomedical research workforce, including an increase in the number of NIH grants utilizing animals and the burgeoning use of transgenic rodents, without a comparable change in the supply of appropriately-trained veterinarians. The committee developed strategies for recruiting more veterinarians into careers in biomedical r...

Frontiers in High Energy Density Physics: The X-Games of Contemporary Science
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Frontiers in High Energy Density Physics

Recent scientific and technical advances have made it possible to create matter in the laboratory under conditions relevant to astrophysical systems such as supernovae and black holes. These advances will also benefit inertial confinement fusion research and the nation’s nuclear weapon’s program. The report describes the major research facilities on which such high energy density conditions can be achieved and lists a number of k...

Enabling Ocean Research in the 21st Century: Implementation of a Network of Ocean Observatories
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Enabling Ocean Research in the 21st Century

As the importance of the oceans to society grows, so does the need to understand their variation on many temporal and spatial scales. This need to understand ocean change is compelling scientists to move beyond traditional expeditionary modes of investigation. Observing systems will enable the study of processes in the ocean basins over varying timescales and spatial scales, providing the scientific basis for addressing important soc...