The Commonwealth of Oceana
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The Commonwealth of Oceana

The Commonwealth of Oceana, published 1656, is a composition of political philosophy written by the English politician and essayist, James Harrington (1611–1677). It is an exposition on an ideal constitution, designed to allow for the existence of a utopian republic.

The Birth of Tragedy
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The Birth of Tragedy

A compelling argument for the necessity for art in life, Nietzsche's first book is fuelled by his enthusiasms for Greek tragedy, for the philosophy of Schopenhauer and for the music of Wagner, to whom this work was dedicated. Nietzsche outlined a distinction between its two central forces: the Apolline, representing beauty and order, and the Dionysiac, a primal or ecstatic reaction to the sublime. He believed the combination of these...

The New Organon By Francis Bacon
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The New Organon By Francis Bacon

The Novum Organum, full original title Novum Organum Scientiarum, is a philosophical work by Francis Bacon, written in Latin and published in 1620. The title is a reference to Aristotle's work Organon, which was his treatise on logic and syllogism. In Novum Organum, Bacon details a new system of logic he believes to be superior to the old ways of syllogism. This is now known as the Baconian method.

Pensées by Blaise Pascal
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Pensées by Blaise Pascal

The Pensées (literally "thoughts") is a collection of fragments on theology and philosophy written by 17th-century philosopher and mathematician Blaise Pascal. Pascal's religious conversion led him into a life of asceticism and this was in many ways his life's work.

A Pluralistic Universe by William James
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A Pluralistic Universe by William James

The Hibbert Lectures at Manchester College on the present situation in Philosophy. From the first lecture: 'As these lectures are meant to be public, and so few, I have assumed all very special problems to be excluded, and some topic of general interest required. Fortunately, our age seems to be growing philosophical again — still in the ashes live the wonted fires. Oxford, long the seed-bed, for the english world, of the idealism in...

The Unseen World and Other Essays
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The Unseen World and Other Essays

John Fisk, born in Connecticut in 1842, was a Harvard educated philosopher. A fan of Charles Darwin, he championed the popular opinion of the day regarding brain size and the racial superiority of the "Anglo-Saxon race". Despite this, he was also avid anti-slavery and twenty-three years after the cessation of the American Civil War, he declared the North's victory complete "despite the feeble wails" of "unteachable bigots." Essays in...

The Genealogy of Morals
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The Genealogy of Morals

Contains a Preface and three interrelated essays that expand on the concepts he laid out in Beyond Good and Evil. The essays are: First Treatise: "'Good and Evil', 'Good and Bad'"; Second Treatise: "'Guilt', 'Bad Conscience', and Related Matters"; Third Treatise: "What do ascetic ideals mean?".

A Modern Theory of Ethics
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A Modern Theory of Ethics

Chapters include: The Need for Ethics; Self-Fulfilment as the Ground of Ethics; Criticism of the Self-Fulfilment Theory; Pleasure as Constitutive of Good; Good as an Unique Quality; Teleology in Ethics; Tendency in Physics and Biology; Tendency in Psychology; Psychical Conflict; Objective Activity as the Ground of Ethics; Determinism and Free Will; Essentials of the Concrete Ideal; Reality and Admiration; Moral Zeal, Disillusion, and...

A Confession
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A Confession

This short work was originally titled An Introduction to a Criticism of Dogmatic Theology. It is a brief autobiographical story of the author's struggle with a mid-life existential crisis, and describes his search for the answer to the ultimate philosophical question: If God does not exist, since death is inevitable, what is the meaning of life?