This book presents a historical-philosophical analysis of the concept of evolution, considering the degree of development of the theories of evolution in cosmology, biology, neurobiology, and philosophy. Evolution is defined here as the continuous and nonlinear complication of the structure of matter and types of interaction and environments. The book analyses existing approaches to the research of this concept in modern science and philosophy, looking at the ways in which its factors and causes have previously been explored. Unifying such interdisciplinary approaches to evolution in cosmology, biology, neurobiology, and philosophy, the book then discusses its own model, Evolving Matter, which considers not only the regularity of transition of a space vacuum in neural ensembles, but also the universe as a complex, non-uniform organisation. In addition, the book contains systematised interdisciplinary information on the theory of evolution.